Micro-strangulation vs COTS customisation

Over the last couple of posts, we’ve referred to the following diagram and its ability to create a glass ceiling on OSS feature releases:
The increasing percentage of tech debt

Yesterday’s post indicated that the current proliferation of microservices has the potential to amplify the strangulation.

So how does that compare with the previous approach that was built around COTS (Commercial off-the-shelf) OSS packages?

With COTS, the same time-series chart exists, just that it sees the management of legacy, etc fall largely with the COTS vendor, freeing up the service provider… until the service provider starts building customisations and the overhead becomes shared.

With microservices, the rationalisation responsibility is shifted to the in-house (or insourced) microservice developers.

And a third option: If the COTS is actually delivered via a cloud “OSS as a service” (OSSaaS) model, then there’s a greater incentive for the vendor to constantly re-factor and reduce clutter.

A fourth option, which I haven’t actually seen as a business model yet, is once an accumulation of modular microservices begins to grow, vendors might begin to offer microservices as a COTS offering.

Is micro-strangulation underway within OSS?

Yesterday’s post spoke of how the accumulation of features was limiting us to small, incremental change.

The diagram below re-tells that story:
The increasing percentage of tech debt

You’ve probably noticed that microservices are the big buzz in our industry. They’re perceived as being the big white hope for our future. I have my reservations though.

If you’re at t0 in the chart above, microservices allow for rapid rollout of features, whole small-grid architectures even (in a Lean / MVP world). My reservations stem from the propensity for rapid release of microservices to amplify the accumulation of tech debt (ie the escalation of maintenance and testing in the chart above). They have the potential to take organisations to t0+100 really quickly.

The upside though is that replacement or re-factoring of smaller modules (ie microservices) should be easier than the change-out of monolithic software suites. The one caveat… we have to commit to a culture of subtraction projects being as important as feature releases.

The strangulation of OSS feature releases

The diagram below provides a time-sequence view of how tech-debt accumulation eventually strangles new OSS feature releases unless the drastic measures described are taken.

The increasing percentage of tech debt

At start-up (t0), the system is brand new and has no legacy to maintain, so all effort can be dedicated to delivering new features (or products) as well as testing to ensure control of quality.

But over time (t0 + 10, where 10 is a nominal metric that could be days, years, release cycles, etc), effort is now required to maintain existing functionality / infrastructure. Not only that, but the test load increases. New features need to be tested as well as regression testing done on the legacy because there are now more variants to consider. You’ll notice that less of the effort is now available for adding new features.

The rest of the chart is self-explanatory I hope. Over a longer period of time, so much effort is required just to maintain and assure the status quo that there is almost no time left to add new features. Any new features come with a significant testing and maintenance load.

Many traditional telcos (Mammoths) and their OSS suites have found themselves at t0+100. The legacy is so large and entwined that it’s a massive undertaking to make any pivotal change (the chess-board analogy).

This is where startups and the digital / cloud players have a significant disruptive advantage over the Mammoths. They’re at t0 to t0+10 (if the metric is in years) and can roll out more new features proportionally.

What the chart above doesn’t show is subtraction projects, the effort required to ensure the legacy maintenance load and number of variants (ie testing load) are hacked away at every opportunity. The digital players call this re-factoring and the telcos, well, they don’t really have a name for it because they rarely do it (do they?).

Telcos (and their OSS suites) are like hoarders, starting off with an empty house (t0) and progressively filling it with stuff until they can barely see any carpet for the clutter (t0+100). It generally takes the intervention of an outsider to force a de-cluttering because the hoarder can’t notice a problem.

The risk with the Agile, DevOps, continuous release movement that’s currently underway is that it’s rapidly speeding up the release cadence so we might be near t0 now but we’re going to get to t0+100 far faster than before when release cadences were far slower.

Can we all see that an additional colour MUST be added to the time-series chart above – the colour that represents reductionist effort? I’m so passionate about this that it’s a strong thread running through the arc of my next book (keep an eye out for upcoming posts as I’ll be seeking your help and insights on it in the lead-up to launch).

Are your OSS better today than they were 5 years ago?

Are your OSS better today than they were 5 years ago?
(or 10, 15, 20 years depending on how long you’ve been in the industry) 

Your immediate reaction to this question is probably going to be, “Yes!” After all, you and your peers have put so much effort into your OSS in the last 5 years. They have to be better right?

On the basis of effort, our OSS are definitely more capable… but let me ask again, “Are they better?”

How do they stack up on key metrics such as:

  1. Do they need less staff to run / maintain
  2. Do they allow products to be released more quickly to market
  3. Do they allow customer services to be ready for service (RFS) faster
  4. Are mean times to repair (MTTR) faster when there’s a problem in the network
  5. Are bills more accurate (and need less intervention across all of the parties that contribute)
  6. Are there less fall-outs (eg customer activations that get lost in the ether)
  7. Are we better at delivering (or maintaining) OSS on budget
  8. Are your CAPEX and OPEX budgets lower
  9. Are our front-office staff (eg retail, contact centres, etc) able to give better outcomes for customers via our OSS/BSS
  10. Are our average truck-rolls per activation lower
  11. Are the insights we’re identifying generating longer-run competitive advantages
  12. etc, etc

Maybe it’s the rose-coloured glasses, but my answer to the initial question when framed against these key metrics is, “Probably not,” but with a couple of caveats.

Our OSS are certainly far more complicated. The bubble in which we operate is far more complicated (ie network types, product offerings, technology options, contact channels, more touchpoints, etc). This means more variants for our OSS / BSS to handle. In addition, we’ve added a lot more functionality (ie complexity of our own).

Comparison of metrics will vary greatly across different OSS operators – some for the better, some worse. Maybe I’m just working on projects that are more challenging now than I was 5, 10, 15 years ago.

Do you have the data to confirm / deny that your OSS is better than in years past?

PS. Oh, and one last call-out. You’ll notice that the metrics above tend to be cross-silo. I have no doubt that individual OSS products have improved in terms of functionality, usability, processing speeds, etc. But what about our end-to-end workflows through our OSS/BSS suite of products?

Do you want dirty or clean automation?

Earlier in the week, we spoke about the differences between dirty and clean consulting, as posed by Dr Richard Claydon, and how it impacted the use of consultants on OSS projects.

The same clean / dirty construct applies to automation projects / tools such as RPA (Robotic Process Automation).

Clean Automation = simply building robotic automations (ie fixed algorithms) that manage existing process designs
Dirty Automation = understanding the process deeply first, optimising it for automation, then creating the automation.

The first is cheap(er) and easy(er)… in the short-term at least.
The second requires getting hands dirty, analysing flows, analysing work practices, analysing data / logs, understanding operator psychology, identifying inefficiencies, refining processes to make them better suited to automation, etc.

Dirty automation requires analysis, not just of the SOP (Standard Operating Procedure), but the actual state-changes occurring from start to end of each iteration of process implementation.
This also represents the better launching-off point to lead into machine-learning (ie cognitive automation), rather than algorithmic or robotic automation.

Bill Gates’ two rules of OSS technology (plus one)

The first rule of any technology used in a business is that automation applied to an efficient operation will magnify the efficiency. The second is that automation applied to an inefficient operation will magnify the inefficiency.”
Bill Gates
.

The pervading OSS business case paradigm is to seek cost-out by introducing automation that reduces head-count – Do more with less.

But it seems that’s the antithesis of how to look for cost reduction. It’s adding more complexity into a given system. Fundamentally, more complexity can not be the best approach to a cost-reduction strategy, right?

The cost-out paradigm should be built on reducing, not adding complexity – Let’s stop doing more that delivers less.

To add to Bill Gates’ two rules of technology, my third rule is that if you’re going to add technology (ie complexity), it should attempt to create growth opportunities, not seek to reduce costs.

Do you want dirty or clean OSS consulting?

The original management consultant was Frederick Taylor, who prided himself in having discovered the “one best way” which would be delivered by “first-class men”. These assumptions, made in 1911, are still dominant today. Best practice is today’s “one best way” and recruiters, HR and hiring managers spend months and months searching for today’s “first-class men”.

I call this type of consulting clean because the assumptions allow the consultant to avoid dirty work or negative feedback. The model is “proven” best practice. Thus, if the model fails, it is not the consultants’ fault – rather it’s that the organisation doesn’t have the “first-class employees” who can deliver the expected outcome. You just have to find those that can. Then everything will be hunky dory.

All responsibility and accountability are abdicated downwards to HR and hiring managers. A very clean solution for everybody but them.

It’s also clean because it can be presented in a shiny manner – lots of colourful slide-decks promising a beautiful outcome – rational, logical, predictable, ordered, manageable. Clean. In today’s world of digital work, the best practice model is a new platform transforming everything you do into a shiny, pixelated reality. Cleaner than ever.

The images drawn by clean consultants are compelling. The client gets a clearly defined vision of a future state backed up by evidence of its efficacy.

But it’s far too often a dud. Things are ignored. The complex differences between the client and the other companies the model has been used on. The differences in size, in market, in demographic, in industry. None matter – because the one best way model is just that – one best way. It will work everywhere for everyone. As long as they keep doing it right and can find the right people to do it.

The dirty consultant has a problem that the clean consultant doesn’t have. It’s a big problem. He doesn’t have an immediate answer for the complex problem vexing the client. He has no flashy best practice model he strongly believes in. No shiny slide deck that outlines a defined future state.

It’s a difficult sell.

What he does have is a research process. A way of finding out what is actually causing the organisational problems. Why and how the espoused culture is different from organisational reality. Why and how the supposed best practice solution is producing stressed out anxiety or cynical apathy.

This process is underpinned by a fundamentally different perspective on the world of work. Context is everything. There is no solution that can fit every company all of the time. But there’s always a solution for the problem. It just has to be discovered.

The dirty consultant enters an organisation ready and willing to uncover the dirty reasons for the organisation not performing. This involved two processes – (1) working out where the inefficiencies and absurdities are, and (2) finding out who knows how to solve them.”

The text above all comes from this LinkedIn post by Dr Richard Claydon. It’s also the longest quote I’ve used in nearly 2000 posts here on PAOSS. I’ve copied such a great swathe of it because it articulates a message that is important for OSS.

There is no “best practice.” There is no single way. There are no cookie-cutter consulting solutions. There are too many variants at play. Every OSS has massive local context. They all have a local context that is far bigger than any consultant can bring to bear.

They all need dirty consulting – assignments where the consultant doesn’t go into the job knowing the answers, acknowledging that they don’t have the same local, highly important context of those who are at gemba every day, at the coal-face every day.

There is no magic-square best-fit OSS solution for a given customer. There should be no domino-effect selection of OSS (ie the big-dog service provider in the region has chosen product X after a long product evaluation so therefore all the others should choose X too). There is no perfect, clean answer to all OSS problems.

Having said that, we should definitely seek elements of repeatability – using repeatable decision frameworks to guide the dirty consulting process, to find solutions that really do fit, to find where repeatable processes will actually make a difference for a given customer.

So if the local context is so important, why even use a consultant?

It’s a consultant’s role to be a connector – to connect people, ideas, technologies, concepts, organisations – to help a customer make valuable connections they would otherwise not be able to make.

These connections often come from the ability to combine the big-picture concepts of clean consulting with the contextual methods of dirty consulting. There’s a place for both, but it’s the dirty consulting that provides the all-important connection to gemba. If an OSS consultant doesn’t have a dirty-consulting background, an ability to frame from a knowledge of gemba, I wonder whether the big-picture concepts can ever be workable?

What are your experiences working with clean consultants (vs dirty consultants) in OSS?

The biggest moonshot facing OSS today

Moonshot thinking is about making something 10x better. This forces you to throw away the existing assumptions and create something bold and new. Reality will eat into your 10x. At the end of the process it may only be 2x, but that’s still amazing.”
Brian Jansen
‘s Book Summary: “Bold: How To Go Big, Create Wealth, and Impact the World,” by Peter Diamandis & Steven Kotler.

I think the biggest moonshot facing OSS today is the design and implementation of an architecture that allows other moonshots to happen.

Take a moment to reflect on that…

As of today, our OSS tend to be complex, entangled beasts, governed by the chess-board analogy. The entanglement is so profound that we tend to only do small, incremental charges. Moving a single piece on the chess-board takes soooo much planning to avoid negative consequences. lt’s the reason that some of our high-profile OSS probably still contain chunks of code that were written in the 1990’s or 2000’s.

In the world of OSS, the 10x moonshot comes with a risk of delivering -5x not just the 2x mentioned in the quote above.

Having said that, I’m all for a good moonshot project. It might take just one disentanglement moonshot to allow 1000 subsequent moonshots to fire! A disentanglement moonshot like the small-grid approach described here.

Building an OSS piggybank with scoreboard pressure

“The gameplan tells what you want to happen, but the scoreboard tells what is happening.”
John C Maxwell

Over the years, I’ve found it interesting that most of the organisations I’ve consulted to have significant hurdles for a new OSS to jump through to get funded (the gameplan), but rarely spend much time on the results (the scoreboard)… apart from the burndown of capital during the implementation project.

From one perspective, that’s great for OSS implementers. With less accountability, we can move straight on to the next implementation and not have to justify whether our projects are worth the investment. It allows us to focus on justifying whether we’ve done a technically brilliant implementation instead.

However, from the other perspective, we’re short-changing ourselves if we’re not proving the value of our projects. We’re not building up the credits in the sponsor bank ahead of the inevitable withdrawals (ie when one of our OSS projects goes over time, budget or functionality is reduced to bring in time/budget). It’s the lack of credits that make sponsors skeptical of any OSS investment value and force the aforementioned jumping through hoops.

One of our OSS‘s primary functions is to collect and process data – to be the central nervous system for our organisations. We have the data to build the scoreboards. Perhaps we just don’t apply enough creativity to proving the enormous value of what our OSS are facilitating.

Do you ever consider whether you’re on the left or right side of this ledger / scoreboard?

Been done before, been done before

What percentage of the work you do each day is work where the process (the ‘right answer’) is known? Jobs where you replicate a process instead of inventing one…
The place where we can create the most value is when we do a job where exploration and a new solution is what’s needed. Not rote, but exploration. Which means we’re doing something that’s not been done before, something that might not work.
This isn’t something to avoid, it’s the work we need to seek out
.”
Seth Godin
in this blog.

From the perspective of OSS experts, this blog from Seth Godin has three distinct perspectives:

  • The OSS operators’ perspective – Where we want super-repeatability, consistency and quality. We can accommodate exploration, but only if we’re monitoring Darwinian change and using it to evolve to become ever fitter and faster. Operator roles are all about coercing large volumes of activities through the funnel as quickly and accurately as possible, supported by our OSS tools and processes.
  • The OSS installer’s perspective – Where we want the out of the box installation to also be highly efficient, repeatable and consistent. In most cases, we don’t want room for exploration during an install
  • The OSS builders’ perspective – Where we want to follow Godin’s explorative lead, where we want to configure / customise an OSS by seeking something that’s never been done before in the hope that the solution is better than has ever been done before (in readiness to hand over to operators and installers)

Some people enjoy rote, consistency and repeatability, knowing what they’re going to do each day before the day starts. OSS needs these personalities.

But for the OSS builder roles, rote isn’t something to avoid, it’s the work we need to seek out, perhaps more passionately and laterally than we may care to admit.

OSS death in The Matrix

84 percent of employees are “matrixed” to some extent, meaning they serve on multiple teams
Gallup Report: “State of the American Workplace.”

Like me, you’ve probably worked on some highly functional OSS teams as well as some dysfunctional ones. Perhaps you’ve even worked with teams that have had elements of both.

Today I reflect on what have been the ingredients of the highly functional teams I’ve been lucky to work with.

They’ve had smart, dedicated people, but so have the dysfunctional teams so that’s not it. The dysfunctional teams have had conflict, but so have the functional teams.

Interestingly, the highest achieving teams I’ve worked on have tended to be small and located far away from home. They haven’t had a single powerful leader but have had a core of tripods with functional groupings surrounding the core. They haven’t always had great project managers leading the project but that certainly doesn’t mean a lack of leadership.

Large OSS projects tend to evolve as they go, so having a clear view of the end state hasn’t been the differentiator. I’ve always believed that the customer / client gets back what they put in but some of the highest-achieving teams have delivered even when there has been something of an us against them dynamic (but still significant interaction with the client).

My take on all of this is:

  • Having a core of 3-5 multi-functional experts, each guiding smaller teams, spreads the dependence compared with having a single guru
  • Being offshore has tended to force a greater level of team interaction and deeper understanding between team members, especially outside work hours, even where that hasn’t necessarily translated to close friendships
  • Being part of a small team that is under-resourced means everyone has had to go outside the comfort zone of their job title to get priority tasks done. Whilst the single common objective (ie to deliver an OSS) is clear, there has been flexibility in how the objective is achieved
  • Having a single objective (ie not matrixed across multiple teams and projects) has allowed a focus amidst the chaos and a sense of accountability to a single team

l tend to believe that the last item on the list could be one of the biggest, most underestimated factors. Most big OSS projects I’ve worked on in the last few years have been heavily matrixed. They also haven’t had the most highly functional teams interestingly.

If you’re envisioning a moonshot OSS project, I’d recommend building a small expert core and eliminate any sense of the matrix from around them.

In your experience, what have been the ingredients of the most successful teams you’ve engaged with? Are my ingredients consistent or contrary to yours?

Big circle. Little circle. Crossing the red line

Data quality is the bane of many a telco. If the data quality is rubbish then the OSS tools effectively become rubbish too.

Feedback loops are one of the most underutilised tools in a data fix arsenal. However, few people realise that there are what I call big circle feedback loops as well as little circles.

The little circle is using feedback in data alone, using data to compare and reconcile other data. That can produce good results, but it’s only part of the story. Many data challenges extend further than that if you’re seeking a resolution.

The big circle is designing feedback loops that incorporate data quality into end-to-end processes, which includes the field-work part of the process.

Redline markups have been the traditional mechanism to get feedback from the field back into improving OSS data. For example, if designers issue a design pack out to field techs that prove to be incorrect, then techs return the design with redline markups to show what they’ve implemented in the field instead.

With mobile technology and the right software tools, field workers could directly update data. Unfortunately this model doesn’t seem to fit into practices that have been around for decades.

There remain great opportunities to improve the efficiency of big circle feedback loops. They probably need a new way of thinking, but still need to fit into the existing context of field workers.

An uncommon list of OSS books

Since reading the first book on this list, I’ve become a very avid and wide-ranging reader. The seeds sown by the book list below have immensely helped enrich the content you see here on the PAOSS blog and other PAOSS content.

You’ll begin to notice a very curious thing about this list though. There are only two books in the entire list that are actually about OSS. I have many OSS books in my library, but most struggle for relevance beyond the author’s frame of reference – they have been written from the specific technical experiences of the author, which are rarely transferable to other OSS. Either the technologies are now out of date and/or the details / terminologies were pertinent only to that OSS time and place. It’s one of the reasons that PAOSS content is specifically intended to abstract from technology and deliver insights, methodologies, processes and frameworks that have a broader relevance and greater longevity (hopefully).

The remaining books in the list have not been written with OSS in mind but definitely provide insights and perspectives that are transferable to the challenges we face in the OSS industry. In no particular order (except the first being the first…)

Rich Dad, Poor DadRich Dad, Poor Dad
by Sharon L. Lechter Robert T. Kiyosaki
This was the book that changed it all for me. Whilst its intent is to educate on personal finance, the effect it had was to lift my eyes beyond the purely technical. Like 95%+ of people in our industry, I had previously only ever focused on delivering the best technical solution I could with the assumption that this would deliver a great customer outcome. I now know that the challenges we face are far  bigger than that!
Insanely Simple: The Obsession That Drives Apple's SuccessInsanely Simple: The Obsession That Drives Apple’s Success
by Ken Segall
The greatest OSS (but non-OSS) book I’ve read. The first half of this book in particular delivers powerful examples of simplification at all levels of an organisation as experienced by an advertising executive working alongside Steve Jobs at Apple. The OSS and communications industry need more people who are able to wield the simple stick like Steve did.
ReworkRework
by Jason Fried, David Heinemeier Hansson
These gentlemen have built a strong business around the Basecamp project management suite of tools. In Rework, just like their blog at 37signals, they provide brilliant contrarian insights into how to run a software business… Or any business for that matter. Efficiency and simplicity are the mantra ahead of the Red-Bull fuelled heroics spouted by many organisations in the software industry. One of my all-time favourite business books.
Enchantment: The Art of Changing Hearts, Minds, and ActionsEnchantment: The Art of Changing Hearts, Minds, and Actions
by Guy Kawasaki
Guy defines enchantment as, “the process of delighting people with a product, service, organisation or idea. The outcome of enchantment is voluntary and long-lasting support that is mutually beneficial.” If there was ever an industry that was in need of enchantment, it is the OSS industry right now.
Rain: What a Paperboy Learned About BusinessRain: What a Paperboy Learned About Business
by Jeffrey J. Fox
An easy to digest story about a boy with a paper-route learning the key tenets of rainmaking, the ability to delight customers and make sales (and projects) happen.
The Presentation Secrets of Steve Jobs: How to Be Insanely Great in Front of Any AudienceThe Presentation Secrets of Steve Jobs: How to Be Insanely Great in Front of Any Audience
by Carmine Gallo
There are two acronyms that pervade in the OSS / telco / tech industry; DBA (Death by Acronym) and DBP (Death by Powerpoint). This book provides some stunning insights into how to make a compelling presentation on your latest OSS project.
Killing Giants: 10 Strategies to Topple the Goliath in Your IndustryKilling Giants: 10 Strategies to Topple the Goliath in Your Industry
by Stephen Denny
There are a number of goliath incumbents in our industry. However, I suspect that most of the required disruption is coming from the Davids of our industry, despite the burning platforms at the goliaths. Interesting reading for a different perspective on innovation and change.
Jack Welch & The G.E. Way: Management Insights and Leadership Secrets of the Legendary CEOJack Welch & The G.E. Way: Management Insights and Leadership Secrets of the Legendary CEO
by Robert Slater
This book describes a number of key strategies for how Jack Welch pared back the weighty bureaucracy of General Electric upon his ascension to CEO. I suspect our industry needs similarly brutal change leadership to thrive into the future
The Best Service is No Service: How to Liberate Your Customers from Customer Service, Keep Them Happy, and Control CostsThe Best Service is No Service: How to Liberate Your Customers from Customer Service, Keep Them Happy, and Control Costs
by Bill Price, David Jaffe
There is a distinct difference between the customer service models of the typical communications service provider (CSP) and digital service providers (DSP) like Google, Facebook, Amazon, et al. Most CSPs can only wish for the level of customer self-service that the DSPs enjoy. I was working on a project for a customer-facing business unit of a CSP whilst reading this book and the parallels were almost scary.
Essentialism: The Disciplined Pursuit of LessEssentialism: The Disciplined Pursuit of Less
by Greg McKeown
Think: Less but better. A motto for our industry, one individual at a time.
Anything You Want: 40 Lessons for a New Kind of EntrepreneurAnything You Want: 40 Lessons for a New Kind of Entrepreneur
by Derek Sivers
Derek Sivers was a professional musician before starting his own business, one that helped sell the CDs of the long tail of the music industry, musicians overlooked by the big labels. This might sound barely relevant to the OSS industry but there is an uncommon clarity in the way that Sivers views businesses, customers and delivery. Many of his thoughts really struck a chord with me (bad pun intended).
Brick by Brick: How LEGO Rewrote the Rules of Innovation and Conquered the Global Toy IndustryBrick by Brick: How LEGO Rewrote the Rules of Innovation and Conquered the Global Toy Industry
by David Robertson, Bill Breen
Bespoke creativity took this icon of childrens’ toys to the brink of bankruptcy. Perhaps counter-intuitively, paring it back to the basic building blocks (another bad pun) allowed creativity and profitability to thrive at Lego.
Principles: Life and WorkPrinciples: Life and Work
by Ray Dalio
Built around the principles that Ray Dalio codified at his company, Bridgewater Associates. Many of his principles of team and culture seem like common sense, but helpfully compiled into a single volume. Not all OSS teams have these principles mastered.
Blue Ocean Strategy, Expanded Edition: How to Create Uncontested Market Space and Make the Competition IrrelevantBlue Ocean Strategy, Expanded Edition: How to Create Uncontested Market Space and Make the Competition Irrelevant
by W. Chan Kim, Renée Mauborgne
This book provides frameworks for shifting an organisation out of fragmented, highly competitive markets (bloody red oceans) into a unique market segment (blue oceans). I’ve even added some of the concepts in this book into a framework that helps my clients plot differentiated strategic roadmaps and product evaluations.
Leading ChangeLeading Change
by John P. Kotter
OSS projects are challenging to implement. Through harsh experience, I’ve learnt that even technically perfect implementations are prone to fail if the organisational change effort hasn’t been managed well. Whilst there are newer change management methodologies available, I still find that Kotter’s 8 steps provide a valuable framework for building OSS change management strategies around.
Everything Is Negotiable: How to Get the Best Deal Every TimeEverything Is Negotiable: How to Get the Best Deal Every Time
by Gavin Kennedy
Introduces some fascinating negotiation tactics such as “The Mother Hubbard” (ie the cupboard is bare). There is more negotiation required in OSS than I first gave it credit for.
Endless Referrals: Network Your Everyday Contacts into SalesEndless Referrals: Network Your Everyday Contacts into Sales
by Bob Burg
In the early days of my career, I’d gone from one project to the next, with my head down focusing on delivery. This book opened my eyes to the value of staying in touch with past colleagues and adding value to my network. The results have surprised me so I recommend this book’s teachings to anyone who is purely tech-focused.
The Idea Factory: Bell Labs and the Great Age of American InnovationThe Idea Factory: Bell Labs and the Great Age of American Innovation
by Jon Gertner
Put simply, this is probably the most inspiring book I’ve read in relation to the communications industry. The groundbreaking innovations (including OSS) that were developed within R&D powerhouses like Bell Labs during the 1900’s are staggering and something that we can barely even aspire to today. It’s no coincidence that the OSS Call for Innovation references this book
nullLinchpin: Are You Indispensable?
by Seth Godin
A call to action to become a linchpin, someone who delivers in territory where there is no map / rule-book, someone who inspires those around them. OSS needs more linchpins.
Made to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others DieMade to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die
by Chip Heath, Dan Heath
The term “stickiness” was popularised by Malcolm Gladwell in “The Tipping Point.” This book borrows the term and looks to explain why an idea or concept remains sticky. OSS tend to be so sticky, in many cases to the detriment of the customer experience, but our industry is also in desperate need for powerfully sticky new ideas and approaches.
The E-Myth Revisited: Why Most Small Businesses Don't Work and What to Do About ItThe E-Myth Revisited: Why Most Small Businesses Don’t Work and What to Do About It
by Michael E. Gerber
The ideas in this book are based on growing small businesses, but there are certainly take-aways for OSS. The biggest for me is the need for repeatability. We need to codify and systematise if we are to refine and improve.
Purple Cow, New Edition: Transform Your Business by Being RemarkablePurple Cow, New Edition: Transform Your Business by Being Remarkable
by Seth Godin
In a cluttered or fragmented marketplace, like OSS, it is difficult to stand out from all other suppliers. Seth Godin introduces the concept of the purple cow – when you’re on a long trip in the countryside, seeing lots of brown or black cows soon gets boring, but if you saw a purple cow, you’d immediately take notice. This book provides the impetus to make your products stand out and drive word of mouth rather than having to differentiate via your marketing.
Creativity, Inc.: Overcoming the Unseen Forces That Stand in the Way of True InspirationCreativity, Inc.: Overcoming the Unseen Forces That Stand in the Way of True Inspiration
by Ed Catmull, Amy Wallace
From the creative brilliance of Pixar Studios comes this book of how to cultivate inspired creativity. My biggest take-away was the amount of time and money Pixar spends on upgrading its hardware and software platforms between films…. unlike some of our OSS that are still rooted in tech from the 1990s.
The 4-Hour Workweek: Escape 9-5, Live Anywhere, and Join the New RichThe 4-Hour Workweek: Escape 9-5, Live Anywhere, and Join the New Rich
by Timothy Ferriss
Starts off strongly but drops away rapidly in the second half IMHO. The words of a friend of mine aptly paraphrase what Tim Ferris talks about in this book, “Only do what only you can do.” Prioritise your efforts on what make you truly unique and use other efficiency tools and/or engage others to do the rest
OSS Essentials: Support System Solutions for Service ProvidersOSS Essentials: Support System Solutions for Service Providers
by Kornel Terplan
Finally, a book that’s actually about OSS. Whilst covering some obsolete technologies, this is one of the very few OSS books that retains a longevity of relevance (it was published in 2001)
Million Dollar Consulting: The Professional's Guide to Growing a Practice, Fifth EditionMillion Dollar Consulting: The Professional’s Guide to Growing a Practice, Fifth Edition
by Alan Weiss
Alan Weiss has the ability to cut through the waffle that’s offered in many consultancy how-to manuals. He provides insightful and often contrarian advice that will make you a more professional consultant, no matter what area of expertise you cover.
Mastering your OSS: Operational Support System Implementation Tips and TechniquesMastering your OSS: Operational Support System Implementation Tips and Techniques
by Ryan Jeffery
This is the best OSS book that I’ve written (so far), but with new material in the pipeline, watch this space for even better publications. It provides the frameworks, processes, insights and recommendations that will help guide you through the myriad of challenges, technical or otherwise, that you will face in the world of OSS.
Power Listening: Mastering the Most Critical Business Skill of AllPower Listening: Mastering the Most Critical Business Skill of All
by Bernard T. Ferrari
Bernard Ferrari advises the use of the Pareto Principle to listening. In other words, spending 80% of the time listening and only 20% talking. It’s such an important trait for all technical resources, yet perhaps somewhat uncommon unfortunately. As the “hired gun,” there is a tendency to start firing from both barrels verbally as soon as you meet with the customer. But the most insightful insights are the ones that are understandable to the customer. They have to be relevant in terminology, desired outcomes, roles/responsibilities, respective capabilities, etc, etc. You only get that context from Power Listening.
The Click Moment: Seizing Opportunity in an Unpredictable WorldThe Click Moment: Seizing Opportunity in an Unpredictable World
by Frans Johansson
Johansson also introduces the concept of the “smallest executable step” as a mechanism for harnessing the apparent randomness of our modern, rapidly changing world. He suggests that we make many small bets rather than one massive bet as a means of improving success rates. OSS are complex systems so any small deviation makes predictions of completion time, resources and cost difficult. As implementers, it’s our job to remove as much complexity as possible
 Harder Than I Thought: Adventures of a Twenty-First Century LeaderHarder Than I Thought: Adventures of a Twenty-First Century Leader
by Robert D. Austin, Richard L. Nolan
More than anything else, one paragraph has stuck with me from this guide to project change leadership, “….once you start a company transformation, it’s like a stampede. If you try to lead from the front, you get trampled; if you try to lead from the back, you have no impact. Best to lead from the side by carefully nudging and turning the stampede to avoid everyone going over the cliff.”
Waging War on Complexity Costs: Reshape Your Cost Structure, Free Up Cash Flows and Boost Productivity by Attacking Process, Product and Organizational ComplexityWaging War on Complexity Costs: Reshape Your Cost Structure, Free Up Cash Flows and Boost Productivity by Attacking Process, Product and Organizational Complexity
by Stephen A. Wilson, Andrei Perumal.
Amongst other things, this book introduces the concept of The Whale Curve, a model that breaks products into the profitable or the cannibalistic.
Cryptocurrency: How Bitcoin and Digital Money are Challenging the Global Economic OrderCryptocurrency: How Bitcoin and Digital Money are Challenging the Global Economic Order
by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey
You may (or may not) be interested in cryptocurrencies right now, but this book provides brilliant context for two concepts that are likely to have a big impact on future OSS – blockchains and smart contracts.

What have I missed? What should I be adding to my reading list? Alternatively, which books on the list do you think I’ve over-rated?

The OSS cosmetic surgery analogy

I love the fact that we’re constantly seeking incremental improvements for our OSS. However, cumulative OSS changes can be a double-edged sword, just as they can be in the cosmetic surgery industry. In both cases, these well intentioned changes can distort as readily as they can improve.


Photo-collage courtesy of DailyMail.co.uk.

I’ve seen OSS go from being open, intuitive, adaptable and flexible tools to being so customised for a single client purpose that they need additional reconstructive work for even the tiniest change (eg process revision, network configuration / topology type, new card type in an existing device, etc).

Embarking on a course of incremental customisation, such as an Agile methodology, can become dangerous without careful consideration. Be vigilant of where your changes might be guiding you.

The madness of most OSS training

When you’ve just implemented a new OSS, what does the training look like? A 2-3 week classroom course series? A train-the-trainer series, which then trickles down to the workforce?

If this is what your OSS training looks like (or even closely resembles), then this is madness. Unfortunately, this is the model that I’ve seen most predominantly in the wild. Many OSS build contracts / RFPs even mandate this type of knowledge transfer.

It’s madness because classroom courses don’t tend to be very good for absorbing the context or nuance of using an OSS. OSS training tends to be generic, without the local context of using the customer’s process flows, naming conventions, device types, topologies, services, etc.

Alan Weiss articulates this well, “…skills building occurs best when it includes application on the job, oversight by immediate supervisors, accountability for implementation, and rewards for success. None of that is accomplished in a classroom.”

What are the better alternatives then? Embedded training including:

  1. Have the customer operatives deeply embedded in the implementation project, absorbing knowledge in “real” situations as it is being built
  2. Offer supported sandpit environments that reflect PROD (Production environments) and allow operatives the time to build scenarios from their own contexts in the sandpit
  3. Provide handover support, where the installation team is on hand to support operational teams during an initial period after handover
  4. Master classes where operatives ask questions within their specific contexts, noting that this technique is only suitable after students have already developed a significant base of knowledge

Whilst PAOSS offers virtual class-based OSS training (which are generic by nature, not product-specific), I’ve found embedded knowledge transfer is far more successful and is my strongly recommended approach.

This is NEVER going to happen

Have you noticed all the recent headlines about the big, iconic brands in our industry struggling to make targets, cutting headcounts, etc.? This covers vendors and service providers alike.

As a complete generalisation:

  • Vendors are going backwards
  • Traditional CSPs are going backwards
  • Profit decline means projects and investments in OSS can only be trending downwards too

We know it’s a burning platform. We know that the current arc isn’t working. We know that change isn’t just an option, but a necessity.

Given this environment, today I’ll talk about an idea that will never happen, but I’d love to imagine just for the purpose of experimentation – to see whether it would disrupt in a positive way or just cause destruction.

The one big impetus we need is increasing eyeballs on a smaller number of OSS (ie decreasing fragmentation) – a critical mass of eyeballs on a smaller number of code bases. That means all the big, but flailing OSS vendors throw their code over to an independent arbiter to make a unified, powerful core product suite that then becomes open-sourced.

The core manages inventory, alarms, performance, workflows, service ordering, provisioning, security, scalability, APIs and all the other elements of a foundational OSS.

The vendors can then just innovate and differentiate with add-ins and services and content since there’s currently marginal differentiation in the core anyway (ie everyone has the “entry” functionality).

What are your completely contrarian ideas that will never happen but you’d like to trial just to see the outcomes?

Lighting the fire under OSS

Forcing people to follow new rules is always an uphill battle, but getting them to buy into a concept to the point where they start contributing their own ideas can literally create a movement within an organisation.”
Ken Segall
.

I’ve really diverted away from direct discussions about OSS in a couple of recent posts about influence, persuasion and change. However, as the link suggests, I recently had a late-onset epiphany in relation to what’s needed to take OSS forward. I’ll give you a hint – it’s not OSS technology change per se.

The recent Call for Innovation has sparked significant direct feedback and a large up-tick in traffic here on PAOSS. This interactivity says that there’s a significant latent appetite for drastic change in our industry.

We’re all really busy, mostly on implementations, so its not change we’re lacking. It’s a lack of fundamental change. Big picture change. The type of change that takes significant collaborative effort, but a correspondingly massive mindset shift of the collective.

That’s the challenge that I’m now grappling with. How do we take the leap from being an implementer of incremental change to sparking something much bigger? It’s also a realisation that the skillsets are different to what most of us in OSS tend to try to develop.

I’d love to hear your thoughts and words / experiences of inspiration.

One link in an OSS chain reaction

Have you ever experienced an event where you realised that you’d spent the previous 10+ years doing something wrong (or at least incomplete)?

I had one such experience last Friday during a presentation by Roger Gibson, a Partner at Infosys Consulting.

Now you all know that I’m a passionate spruiker of change management on OSS projects, mainly because one of the biggest reasons for OSS failure is the lack of CM. You may’ve even noticed a recent article here on PAOSS relating to the techniques we can use to influence change.

My entirely random guess is that about 95% of people in OSS focus primarily on the technical aspects of what’s being implemented, leaving only 5% who’ve grasped the significance of influencing change. My lightbulb moment on Friday came in realising that there’s actually also a 1% group (to be honest, it’s probably far less than 1%).

As an external consultant on most projects, I’ve generally figured that client representatives have far greater tenure and more ability to influence change within their organisation than me. My modus operandi has been to create change strategies and persuade the project team (plus key stakeholders) to start change initiatives as early as possible.

In effect, I’ve been delegating change responsibility. l now realise that’s not going far enough. It is MY responsibility to light the fire under every project I work on – to initiate the chain reaction.

Do you agree that it’s also YOUR responsibility to light the fire under every project you work on?
To quote Wayne Dyer, “It’s never crowded along the extra mile.”

The colour palette analogy of OSS

Let’s say you act for a service provider and the diagram below represents the number of variations you could offer to customers – the number that are technically supported by your solution.
13,824,000 Colours
That’s 13,824,000 colours.

By comparison, the following diagram contains just 20 colours:
20 Colours

If I asked you what colours are in the upper diagram, would you say red, orange, yellow, green, blue, etc? Is it roughly the same response as to the lower diagram?

If you’re the customer, and know you want an “orange*” product, will you be able to easily identify between the many thousands of different orange hues available in the upper diagram? Would you be disenfranchised if you were only offered the two orange hues in the lower diagram instead of thousands? Or might you even be relieved to have a much easier decision to make?

The analogy here to OSS is that just because our solutions can support millions of variants, doesn’t mean we should. If our OSS try to offer millions of variants, it means we have to design, then build, then test, then post-sale support millions of variants.

However, in reality, we can’t provide 100% coverage across so many variants – we aren’t able to sufficiently design, then build, then test, then post-sale support every one of the millions of variants. We end up overlooking some or accept risk on some or estimate a test spread that bypasses others. We’ve effectively opened the door to fall-outs.

And it’s fall-outs that tend to create larger customer dissatisfaction metrics than limited colour palettes.

Just curious – if you’ve delivered OSS into large service providers, have you ever seen evidence of palette analysis (ie variant reduction analysis) across domains (ie products, marketing, networks, digital, IT, field-work, etc)?

Alternatively, have you ever pushed back on decisions made upstream to say you’ll only support a smaller sub-set of options? This doesn’t seem to happen very often.

* When I’m talking about colours, I’m using the term figuratively, not necessarily the hues on a particular handset being sold through a service provider.

The PAOSS Call for Innovation has been released

I’ve been promising to release an OSS Call for Innovation, a manifesto of what OSS can become – a manifesto that also describes areas where exponential improvements are just waiting to happen .

It can be found here:
http://passionateaboutoss.com/oss-call-for-innovation/
And you’ll also notice that it’s a new top-level menu item here on PAOSS.

Each time I’ve released one of these vision-statement style reports in the past, I’ve been pleasantly surprised to find that some of the visions are already being worked on by someone in the industry.

Are there any visions that I’ve overlooked? I’d love to see your comments on the page and spread the word on all the amazing innovations that you’re working on and/or dreaming about.