If ONAP is the answer, what are the questions?

ONAP provides a comprehensive platform for real-time, policy-driven orchestration and automation of physical and virtual network functions that will enable software, network, IT and cloud providers and developers to rapidly automate new services and support complete lifecycle management.
By unifying member resources, ONAP is accelerating the development of a vibrant ecosystem around a globally shared architecture and implementation for network automation–with an open standards focus–faster than any one product could on its own
.”
Part of the ONAP charter from onap.org.

The ONAP project is gaining attention in service provider circles. The Steering Committee of the ONAP project hints at the types of organisations investing in the project. The statement above summarises the mission of this important project. You can bet that the mission has been carefully crafted. As such, one can assume that it represents what these important stakeholders jointly agree to be the future needs of their OSS.

I find it interesting that there are quite a few technical terms (eg policy-driven orchestration) in the mission statement, terms that tend to pre-empt the solution. However, I don’t feel that pre-emptive technical solutions are the real mission, so I’m going to try to reverse-engineer the statement into business needs. Hopefully the business needs (the “why? why? why?” column below) articulates a set of questions / needs that all OSS can work to, as opposed to replicating the technical approach that underpins ONAP.

Phrase Interpretation Why? Why? Why?
real-time The ability to make instantaneous decisions Why1: To adapt to changing conditions
Why2: To take advantage of fleeting opportunities or resolve threats
Why 3: To optimise key business metrics such as financials
Why 4: As CSPs are under increasing pressure from shareholders to deliver on key metrics
policy-driven orchestration To use policies to increase the repeatability of key operational processes Why 1: Repeatability provides the opportunity to improve efficiency, quality and performance
Why 2: Allows an operator to service more customers at less expense
Why 3: Improves corporate profitability and customer perceptions
Why 4: As CSPs are under increasing pressure from shareholders to deliver on key metrics
policy-driven automation To use policies to increase the amount of automation that can be applied to key operational processes Why 1: Automated processes provide the opportunity to improve efficiency, quality and performance
Why 2: Allows an operator to service more customers at less expense
Why 3: Improves corporate profitability and customer perceptions
physical and virtual network functions Our networks will continue to consist of physical devices, but we will increasingly introduce virtualised functionality Why 1: Physical devices will continue to exist into the foreseeable future but virtualisation represents an exciting approach into the future
Why 2: Virtual entities are easier to activate and manage (assuming sufficient capacity exists)
Why 3: Physical equipment supply, build, deploy and test cycles are much longer and labour intensive
Why 4: Virtual assets are more flexible, faster and cheaper to commission
Why 5: Customer services can be turned up faster and cheaper
software, network, IT and cloud providers and developers With this increase in virtualisation, we find an increasingly large and diverse array of suppliers contributing to our value-chain. These suppliers contribute via software, network equipment, IT functions and cloud resources Why 1: CSPs can access innovation and efficiency occurring outside their own organisation
Why 2: CSPs can leverage the opportunities those innovations provide
Why 3: CSPs can deliver more attractive offers to customers
Why 4: Key metrics such as profitability and customer satisfaction are enhanced
rapidly automate new services We want the flexibility to introduce new products and services far faster than we do today Why 1: CSPs can deliver more attractive offers to customers faster than competitors
Why 2: Key metrics such as market share, profitability and customer satisfaction are enhanced as well as improved cashflow
support complete lifecycle management The components that make up our value-chain are changing and evolving so quickly that we need to cope with these changes without impacting customers across any of their interactions with their service Why 1: Customer satisfaction is a key metric and a customer’s experience spans the entire lifecyle of their service.
Why 2: CSPs don’t want customers to churn to competitors
Why 3: Key metrics such as market share, profitability and customer satisfaction are enhanced
unifying member resources To reduce the amount of duplicated and under-synchronised development currently being done by the member bodies of ONAP Why 1: Collaboration and sharing reduces the effort each member body must dedicate to their OSS
Why 2: A reduced resource pool is required
Why 3: Costs can be reduced whilst still achieving a required level of outcome from OSS
vibrant ecosystem To increase the level of supplier interchangability Why 1: To reduce dependence on any supplier/s
Why 2: To improve competition between suppliers
Why 3: Lower prices, greater choice and greater innovation tend to flourish in competitive environments
Why 4: CSPs, as customers of the suppliers, benefit
globally shared architecture To make networks, services and support systems easier to interconnect across the global communications network Why 1: Collaboration on common standards reduces the integration effort between each member at points of interconnect
Why 2: A reduced resource pool is required
Why 3: Costs can be reduced whilst still achieving interconnection benefits

As indicated in earlier posts, ONAP is an exciting initiative for the CSP industry for a number of reasons. My fear for ONAP is that it becomes such a behemoth of technical complexity that it becomes too unwieldy for use by any of the member bodies. I use the analogy of ATM versus Ethernet here, where ONAP is equivalent to ATM in power and complexity. The question is whether there’s an Ethernet answer to the whys that ONAP is trying to solve.

I’d love to hear your thoughts.

(BTW. I’m not saying that the technologies the ONAP team is investigating are the wrong ones. Far from it. I just find it interesting that the mission is starting with a technical direction in mind. I see parallels with the OSS radar analogy.)

Stop looking for exciting new features for your OSS

The iPhone disrupted the handset business, but has not disrupted the cellular network operators at all, though many people were convinced that it would. For all that’s changed, the same companies still have the same business model and the same customers that they did in 2006. Online flight booking doesn’t disrupt airlines much, but it was hugely disruptive to travel agents. Online booking (for the sake of argument) was sustaining innovation for airlines and disruptive innovation for travel agents.
Meanwhile, the people who are first to bring the disruption to market may not be the people who end up benefiting from it, and indeed the people who win from the disruption may actually be doing something different – they may be in a different part of the value chain. Apple pioneered PCs but lost the PC market, and the big winners were not even other PC companies. Rather, most of the profits went to Microsoft and Intel, which both operated at different layers of the stack. PCs themselves became a low-margin commodity with fierce competition, but PC CPUs and operating systems (and productivity software) turned out to have very strong winner-takes-all effects
.”
Ben Evans
on his blog about Tesla.

As usual, Ben makes some thought-provoking points. The ones above have coaxed me into thinking about OSS from a slightly perspective.

I’d tended to look at OSS as a product to be consumed by network operators (and further downstream by the customers of those network operators). I figured that if our OSS delivered benefit to the downstream customers, the network operators would thrive and would therefore be prepared to invest more into OSS projects. In a way, it’s a bit like a sell-through model.

But the ideas above give some alternatives for OSS providers to reduce dependence on network operator budgets.

Traditional OSS fit within a value-chain that’s driven by customers that wish to communicate. In the past, the telephone network was perceived as the most valuable part of that value-chain. These days, digitisation and competition has meant that the perceived value of the network has dropped to being a low-margin commodity in most cases. We’re generally not prepared to pay a premium for a network service. The Microsofts and Intels of the communications value-chain is far more diverse. It’s the Googles, Facebooks, Instagrams, YouTubes, etc that are perceived to deliver most value to end customers today.

If I were looking for a disruptive OSS business model, I wouldn’t be looking to add exciting new features within the existing OSS model. In fact, I’d be looking to avoid our current revenue dependence on network operators (ie the commoditising aspects of the communications value-chain). Instead I’d be looking for ways to contribute to the most valuable aspects of the chain (eg apps, content, etc). Or even better, to engineer a more exceptional comms value-chain than we enjoy today, with an entirely new type of OSS.

The OSS self-driving vehicle

I was lucky enough to get some time of a friend recently, a friend who’s running a machine-learning network assurance proof-of-concept (PoC).

He’s been really impressed with the results coming out of the PoC. However, one of the really interesting factors he’s been finding is how frequently BAU (business as usual) changes in the OSS data (eg changes in naming conventions, topologies, etc) would impact results. Little changes made by upstream systems effectively invalidated baselines identified by the machine-learning engines to key in on. Those little changes meant the engine had to re-baseline / re-learn to build back up to previous insight levels. Or to avoid invalidating the baseline, it would require re-normalising all of data prior to the identification of BAU changes.

That got me wondering whether DevOps (or any other high-change environment) might actually hinder our attempts to get machine-led assurance optimisation. But more to the point, does constant change (at all levels of a telco business) hold us back from reaching our aim of closed-loop / zero-touch assurance?

Just like the proverbial self-driving car, will we always need someone at the wheel of our OSS just in case a situation arises that the machines hasn’t seen before and/or can’t handle? How far into the future will it be before we have enough trust to take our hands off the OSS wheel and let the machines drive closed-loop processes without observation by us?

An alternate way of slicing OSS (part 2)

Last week we talked about an alternate way of slicing OSS projects. Today, we’ll look a little deeper and include some diagrams.

The traditional (aka waterfall) approach to delivering an OSS project sees one big-bang delivery of business value at the end of the implementation.
OSS project delivery via waterfall

The yellow arrows indicate the sequential nature of this style of delivery. The implications include:

  1. If the project runs out of funds before the project finishes, no (negligible) value is delivered
  2. If there’s no modularity of delivery then the project team must stay the course of the original project plan. There’s no room for prioritising or dropping or including delivery modules. Project plans are rarely perfect at first after all
  3. Any changes in project plan tend to have knock-on effects into the rest of the delivery
  4. There is only one true delivery of value, but milestones demonstrate momentum for the project… a key for change management and team morale
  5. Large deliverables represent the proverbial overload one segment of the project delivery team then under-utilises the rest in each stage.  This isn’t great for project flow or team utilisation

The alternate approach seeks to deliver in multiple phases by business value, not artefacts, as shown in the sample model below:
OSS project delivery via AgilePhased enhancements following a base platform build (eg Sandpit and/or Single-site above) could include the following, where each provides a tangible outcome / benefit for the business, thus maintaining perception of momentum (assurance use-cases cited):

  • Additional event collection (ie additional collectors / probes / mediation-devices can be added or configured)
  • Additional filters / sorting of events
  • Event prioritisation mapping / presentation
  • Event correlation
  • Fault suppression
  • Fault escalation
  • Alarm augmentation
  • Alarm thresholding
  • Root-cause analysis (intra, then inter-domain)
  • Other configurations such as latching, auto-acknowledgement, visualisation parameters, etc
  • Heart-beat function (ie devices are unreachable for a user-defined period)
  • Knowledge base (ie developing a database of activities to respond to certain events)
  • Interfacing with other systems (eg trouble-ticket, work-force management, inventory, etc)
  • Setup of roles/groups
  • Setup of skills-based routing
  • Setup of reporting
  • Setup of notifications (eg email, SMS, etc)
  • Naming convention refinements
  • etc, etc

The latter is a more Agile-style breakdown of work, but doesn’t need to be delivered using Agile methodology.

Of course there are pros and cons of each approach. I’d love to hear your thoughts and experiences with different OSS delivery approaches.

Expanding your bag of OSS tricks

Let me ask you a question – when you’ve expanded your bag of tricks that help you to manage your OSS, where have they typically originated?

By reading? By doing? By asking? Through mentoring? Via training courses?
Relating to technical? People? Process? Product?
Operations? Network? Hardware? Software?
Design? Procure? Implement / delivery? Test? Deploy?
By retrospective thinking? Creative thinking? Refinement thinking?
Other?

If you were to highlight the questions above that are most relevant to the development of your bag of tricks, how much coverage does your pattern show?

There are so many facets to our OSS (ie. tentacles on the OctopOSS) aren’t there? We have to have a large bag of tricks. Not only that, we need to be constantly adding new tricks too right?

I tend to find that our typical approaches to OSS knowledge transfer cover only a small subset (think about discussion topics at OSS conferences that tend to just focus on the technical / architectural)… yet don’t align with how we (or maybe just I) have developed capabilities in the past.

The question then becomes, how do we facilitate the broader learnings required to make our OSS great? To introduce learning opportunities for ourselves and our teams across vaguely related fields such as project management, change management, user interface design, process / workflows, creative thinking, etc, etc.

Zero touch network & Service Management (ZSM)

Zero touch network & Service Management (ZSM) is a next-gen network management approach using closed-loop principles hosted by ETSI. An ETSI blog has just demonstrated the first ZSM Proof of Concept (PoC). The slide deck describing the PoC, supplied by EnterpriseWeb, can be found here.

The diagram below shows a conceptual closed-loop assurance architecture used within the PoC
ETSI ZSM PoC.

It contains some similar concepts to a closed-loop traffic engineering project designed by PAOSS back in 2007, but with one big difference. That 2007 project was based on a single-vendor solution, as opposed to the open, multi-vendor PoC demonstrated here. Both were based on the principle of using assurance monitors to trigger fulfillment responses. For example, ours used SLA threshold breaches on voice switches to trigger automated remedial response through the OSS‘s provisioning engine.

For this newer example, ETSI’s blog details, “The PoC story relates to a congestion event caused by a DDoS (Denial of Service) attack that results in a decrease in the voice quality of a network service. The fault is detected by service monitoring within one or more domains and is shared with the end-to-end service orchestrator which correlates the alarms to interpret the events, based on metadata and metrics, and classifies the SLA violations. The end-to-end service orchestrator makes policy-based decisions which trigger commands back to the domain(s) for remediation.”

You’ll notice one of the key call-outs in the diagram above is real-time inventory. That was much harder for us to achieve back in 2007 than it is now with virtualised network and compute layers providing real-time telemetry. We used inventory that was only auto-discovered once daily and had to build in error handling, whilst relying on over-provisioned physical infrastructure.

It’s exciting to see these types of projects being taken forward by ETSI, EnterpriseWeb, et al.

Network slicing, another OSS activity

One business customer, for example, may require ultra-reliable services, whereas other business customers may need ultra-high-bandwidth communication or extremely low latency. The 5G network needs to be designed to be able to offer a different mix of capabilities to meet all these diverse requirements at the same time.
From a functional point of view, the most logical approach is to build a set of dedicated networks each adapted to serve one type of business customer. These dedicated networks would permit the implementation of tailor-made functionality and network operation specific to the needs of each business customer, rather than a one-size-fits-all approach as witnessed in the current and previous mobile generations which would not be economically viable.
A much more efficient approach is to operate multiple dedicated networks on a common platform: this is effectively what “network slicing” allows. Network slicing is the embodiment of the concept of running multiple logical networks as virtually independent business operations on a common physical infrastructure in an efficient and economical way.
.”
GSMA’s Introduction to Network Slicing.

Engineering a network is one of compromises. There are many different optimisation levers to pull to engineer a set of network characteristics. In the traditional network, it was a case of pulling all the levers to find a middle-ground set of characteristics that supported all their service offerings.

QoS striping of traffic allowed for a level of differentiation of traffic handling, but the underlying network was still a balancing act of settings. Network virtualisation offers new opportunities. It allows unique segmentation via virtual networks, where each can be optimised for the specific use-cases of that network slice.

For years, I’ve been posing the concept of telco offerings being like electricity networks – that we don’t need so many service variants. I should note that this analogy is not quite right. We do have a few different types of “electricity” such as highly available (health monitoring), high-bandwidth (content streaming), extremely low latency (rapid reaction scenarios such as real-time sensor networks), etc.

Now what do we need to implement and manage all these network slices?? Oh that’s right, OSS! It’s our OSS that will help to efficiently coordinate all the slicing and dicing that’s coming our way… to optimise all the levers across all the different network slices!

The OSS co-op business model

A co-operative is a member-owned business structure with at least five members, all of whom have equal voting rights regardless of their level of involvement or investment. All members are expected to help run the cooperative.”
Small Business WA.

The co-op business model has fascinated me since doing some tech projects in the dairy industry in the deep distant past. The dairy co-ops empower collaboration of dairy farmers where the might of the collective outweighs that of each individually. As the collective, they’ve been able to establish massive processing plants, distribution lines, bargaining power, etc. The dairy co-ops are a sell-side collaboration.

By contrast open source projects like ONAP represent an interesting hybrid – part buy-side collaboration (ie the service providers acquiring software to run their organisations) and part sell-side (ie the vendors contributing code to the project alongside the service providers).

I’ve long been intrigued by the potential for a pure sell-side co-operative in OSS.

As we all know, the OSS market is highly fragmented (just look the number of vendors / products on this page), which means inefficiency because of the duplicated effort across vendors. A level of market efficiency comes from mergers and acquisitions. In addition, some comes from vendors forming partnerships to offer more complete solutions to a given customer requirement list.

But the key to a true sell-side OSS co-operative would be in the definition above – “at least five members.” Perhaps it’s an open-source project that brings them together. Perhaps it’s an extended partnership.

As Tom Nolle stated in an article that prompted the writing of today’s post, “On the vendor side, commoditization tends to force consolidation. A vendor who doesn’t have a nice market share has little to hope for but slow decline. A couple such vendors (like Infinera and Coriant, recently) can combine with the hope that the combination will be more survivable than the individual companies were likely to be. Consolidation weeds out industry inefficiencies like parallel costly operations structures, and so makes the remaining players stronger.

Imagine for a moment if instead of having developers spread across 100 alarm management tools, that same developer pool can take a consolidated 5 alarm management products forward? Do you think we’d get better, more innovative, more complete products faster?

Having said that, co-ops have their weaknesses too.

What do you think? Could such a model work? Would it be a disaster?

Orchestration looks a bit like provisioning

The following is the result of a survey question posed by TM Forum:
Number 1 Driver for Orchestration

I’m not sure how the numbers tally, but conceptually the graph above paints an interesting perspective of why orchestration is important. The graph indicates the why.

But in this case, for me, the why is the by-product of the how. The main attraction of orchestration models is in how we can achieve modularity. All of the business outcomes mentioned in the graph above will only be achievable as a result of modularity.

Put another way, rather than having the integration spaghetti of an “old-school” OSS / BSS stack, orchestration (and orchestration plans) potentially provides the ability to provide clearer demarcation and abstraction all the way from product design down into transactions that hit the network… not to mention the meet-in-the-middle points between business units.

Demarcation points support catalog items (perhaps as APIs / microservices with published contracts), allowing building-block design of products rather than involvement of (and disputes between) business units all down the line of product design. This facilitates the speed (34%) and services on demand (28%) objectives stated in the graph.

But I used the term “old-school” with intent above. The modularity mentioned above was already achieved in some older OSS too. The ability to carve up, sequence, prioritise and re-construct a stream of service orders was already achievable by some provisioning + workflow engines of the past.

The business outcomes remain the same now as they were then, but perhaps orchestration takes it to the next level.

Using OSS machine learning to predict backwards not forwards

There’s a lot of excitement about what machine-led decisioning can introduce into the world of network operations, and rightly so. Excitement about predictions, automation, efficiency, optimisation, zero-touch assurance, etc.

There are so many use-cases that disruptors are proposing to solve using Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML) and the like. I might have even been guilty of proposing a few ideas here on the PAOSS blog – ideas like closed-loop OSS learning / optimisation of common processes, the use of Robotic Process Automation (RPA) to reduce swivel-chairing and a few more.

But have you ever noticed that most of these use-cases are forward-looking? That is, using past data to look into the future (eg predictions, improvements, etc). What if we took a slightly different approach and used past data to reconcile what we’ve just done?

AI and ML models tend to rely on lots of consistent data. OSS produce or collect lots of consistent data, so we get a big tick there. The only problem is that a lot of our manually created OSS data is riddled with inconsistency, due to nuances in the way that each worker performs workflows, data entry, etc as well as our own personal biases and perceptions.

For example, zero-touch automation has significant cachet at the moment. To achieve that, we need network health indicators (eg alarms, logs, performance metrics), but also a record of interventions that have (hopefully) improved on those indicators. If we have inconsistent or erroneous trouble-ticketing information, our AI is going to struggle to figure out the right response to automate. Network operations teams tend to want to fix problems quickly, get the ticketing data populated as fast as possible and move on to the next fault, even if that means creating inconsistent ticketing data.

So, to get back to looking backwards, a machine-learning use-case to consider today is to look at what an operator has solved, compare it to past resolutions and either validate the accuracy of their resolution data or even auto-populate fields based on the operator’s actions.

Hat tip to Jay Fenton for the idea seed for this post.

How economies of unscale change the OSS landscape

For more than a century, economies of scale made the corporation an ideal engine of business. But now, a flurry of important new technologies, accelerated by artificial intelligence (AI), is turning economies of scale inside out. Business in the century ahead will be driven by economies of unscale, in which the traditional competitive advantages of size are turned on their head.
Economies of unscale are enabled by two complementary market forces: the emergence of platforms and technologies that can be rented as needed. These developments have eroded the powerful inverse relationship between fixed costs and output that defined economies of scale. Now, small, unscaled companies can pursue niche markets and successfully challenge large companies that are weighed down by decades of investment in scale — in mass production, distribution, and marketing
.”
Hemant Taneja with Kevin Maney
in their Sloan Review article, “The End of Scale.”

There are two pathways I can envisage OSS playing a part in the economies of unscale indicated in the Sloan Review quote above.

The first is the changing way of working towards smaller, more nimble organisations, which includes increasing freelancing. There are already many modularised activities managed within an OSS, such as field work, designs, third-party service bundling, where unscale is potentially an advantage. OSS natively manages all these modules with existing tools, whether that’s ticketing, orchestration, provisioning, design, billing, contract management, etc.

Add smart contract management and John Reilly’s value fabric will undoubtedly increase in prevalence. John states that a value fabric is a mesh of interwoven, cooperating organizations and individuals, called parties, who directly or indirectly deliver value to customers. It gives the large, traditional network operators the chance to be more creative in their use of third parties when they look beyond their “Not Invented Here” syndrome of the past. It also provides the opportunity to develop innovative supply and procurement chains (meshes) that can generate strategic competitive advantage.

The second comes with an increasing openness to using third-party platforms and open-source OSS tools within operator environments. The OSS market is already highly fragmented, from multi-billion dollar companies (by market capitalisation) through to niche, even hobby, projects. However, there tended to be barriers to entry for the small or hobbyist OSS provider – they either couldn’t scale their infrastructure or they didn’t hold the credibility mandated by risk averse network operators.

As-a-Service platforms have changed the scale dynamic because they now allow OSS developers to rent infrastructure on a pay-as-you-eat model. In other words, the more their customers consume, the more infrastructure an OSS supplier can afford to rent from platforms such as AWS. More importantly, this become a possibility because operators are now increasingly open to renting third-party services on shared (but compartmentalised / virtualised) infrastructure. BTW. When I say “infrastructure” here, I’m not just talking about compute / network / storage but also virtualisation, containerisation, databases, AI, etc, etc.

Similarly, the credibility barrier-to-entry is being pulled down like the Berlin Wall as operators are increasingly investing in open-source projects. There are large open-source OSS projects / platforms being driven by the carriers themselves (eg ONAP, OpenStack, OPNFV, etc) that are accommodative of smaller plug-in modules. Unlike the proprietary, monolithic OSS/BSS stacks of the past, these platforms are designed with collaboration and integration being front-of-mind.

However, there’s an element of “potential” in these economies of unscale. Andreas Hegers likens open-source to the wild west, as many settlers seek to claim their patch of real-estate in an uncharted map. Andreas states further, “In theory, vendor interoperability from open source should be convenient — even harmonious — with innovations being shared like recipes. Unfortunately for many, the system has not lived up to this reality.”

Where do you sit on the potential of economies of unscale and open-source OSS?

Getting lost in the flow of OSS

The myth is that people play games because they want to avoid challenging work. The reality is, people play games to engage in well-designed, challenging work. The only thing they are avoiding is poorly designed work. In essence, we are replacing poorly designed work with work that provides a more meaningful challenge and offers a richer sense of progress.
And we should note at this point that just because something is a game, it doesn’t mean it’s good. As we’ll soon see, it can be argued that everything is a game. The difference is in the design.
Really good games have been ruthlessly play-tested and calibrated to the point where achieving a state of flow is almost guaranteed for many. Play-testing is just another word for iterative development, which is essentially the conducting of progressive experiments
.”
Dr Jason Fox
in his book, “The Game Changer.”

Reflect with me for a moment – when it comes to your OSS activities, in which situations do you consistently get into a state of flow?

For me, it’s in quite a few different scenarios, but one in particular stands out – building up a network model in an inventory management tool. This activity starts with building models / patterns of devices, services, connections, etc, then using the models to build a replica of the network, either manually or via data migration, within the inventory tool(s). I can lose complete track of time when doing this task. In fact I have almost every single time I’ve performed this task.

Whilst not being much of a gamer, I suspect it’s no coincidence that by far my favourite video game genre is empire-building strategy games like the Civilization series. Back in the old days, I could easily get lost in them for hours too. Could we draw a comparison from getting that same sense of achievement, seeing a network (of devices in OSS, of cities in the empire strategy games) grow rapidly as a result of your actions?

What about fans of first-person shooter games? I wonder whether they get into a state of flow on assurance activities, where they get to hunt down and annihilate every fault in their terrain?

What about fans of horse grooming and riding games? Well…. let’s not go there. 🙂

Anyway, enough of all these reflections and musings. I would like to share three concepts with you that relate to Dr Fox’s quote above:

  1. Gamification – I feel that there is MASSIVE scope for gamification of our OSS, but I’ve yet to hear of any OSS developers using game design principles
  2. Play-testing – How many OSS are you aware of that have been, “ruthlessly play-tested and calibrated?” In almost every OSS situation I’ve seen, as soon as functionality meets requirements, we stop and move on to the next feature. We don’t pause and try a few more variants to see which is most likely to result in a great design, refining the solution, “to the point where achieving a state of flow is almost guaranteed for many
  3. Richer Progress – How many of our end-to-end workflows are designed with, “a richer sense of progress” in mind? Feedback tends to come through retrospective reporting (if at all), rarely through the OSS game-play itself. Chances are that our end-to-end processes actually flow through multiple un-related applications, so it comes back to clever integration design to deliver more compelling feedback. We simply don’t use enough specialist creative designers in OSS

An OSS automation mind-flip

I recently had something of a perspective-flip moment in relation to automation within the realm of OSS.

In the past, I’ve tended to tackle the automation challenge from the perspective of applying automated / scripted responses to tasks that are done manually via the OSS. But it’s dawned on me that I have it around the wrong way! It is an incremental perspective on the main objective of automations – global zero-touch networks.

If we take all of the tasks performed by all of the OSS around the globe, the number of variants is incalculable… which probably means the zero-touch problem is unsolvable (we might be able to solve for many situations, but not all).

The more solvable approach would be to develop a more homogeneous approach to network self-care / self-optimisation. In other words, the majority of the zero-touch challenge is actually handled at the equivalent of EMS level and below (I’m perhaps using out-dated self-healing terminology, but hopefully terminology that’s familiar to readers) and only cross-domain issues bubble up to OSS level.

As the diagram below describes, each layer up abstracts but connects (as described in more detail in “What an OSS shouldn’t do“). That is, each higher layer in the stack reduces the amount if information/control within a domain that it’s responsible for, but it assumes more a broader responsibility for connecting domains together.
OSS abstract and connect

The abstraction process reduces the number of self-healing variants the OSS needs to handle. But to cope with the complexity of self-caring for connected domains, we need a more homogeneous set of health information being presented up from the network.

Whereas the intent model is designed to push actions down into the lower layers with a standardised, simplified language, this would be the reverse – pushing network health knowledge up to higher layers to deal with… in a standard, consistent approach.

And BTW, unlike the pervading approach of today, I’m clearly saying that when unforeseen (or not previously experienced) scenarios appear within a domain, they’re not just kicked up to OSS, but the domains are stoic enough to deal with the situation inside the domain.

Using OSS/BSS to steer the ship

For network operators, our OSS and BSS touch most parts of the business. The network, and the services they carry, are core business so a majority of business units will be contributing to that core business. As such, our OSS and BSS provide many of the metrics used by those business units.

This is a privileged position to be in. We get to see what indicators are most important to the business, as well as the levers used to control those indicators. From this privileged position, we also get to see the aggregated impact of all these KPIs.

In your years of working on OSS / BSS, how many times have you seen key business indicators that are conflicting between business units? They generally become more apparent on cross-team projects where the objectives of one internal team directly conflict with the objectives of another internal team/s.

In theory, a KPI tree can be used to improve consistency and ensure all business units are pulling towards a common objective… [but what if, like most organisations, there are many objectives? Does that mean you have a KPI forest and the trees end up fighting for light?]

But here’s a thought… Have you ever seen an OSS/BSS suite with the ability to easily build KPI trees? I haven’t. I’ve seen thousands of standalone reports containing myriad indicators, but never a consolidated roll-up of metrics. I have seen a few products that show operational metrics rolled-up into a single dashboard, but not business metrics. They appear to have been designed to show an information hierarchy, but not necessarily with KPI trees in mind specifically.

What do you think? Does it make sense for us to offer KPI trees as base product functionality from our reporting modules? Would this functionality help our OSS/BSS add more value back into the businesses we support?

The Goldilocks OSS story

We all know the story of Goldilocks and the Three Bears where Goldilocks chooses the option that’s not too heavy, not too light, but just right.

The same model applies to OSS – finding / building a solution that’s not too heavy, not too light, but just right. To be honest, we probably tend to veer towards the too heavy, especially over time. We put more complexity into our architectures, integrations and customisations… because we can… which end up burdening us and our solutions.

A perfect example is AT&T offering its ECOMP project (now part of the even bigger Linux Foundation Network Fund) up for open source in the hope that others would contribute and help mature it. As a fairytale analogy, it’s an admission that it’s too heavy even for one of the global heavyweights to handle by itself.

The ONAP Charter has some great plans including, “…real-time, policy-driven orchestration and automation of physical and virtual network functions that will enable software, network, IT and cloud providers and developers to rapidly automate new services and support complete lifecycle management.”

These are fantastic ambitions to strive for, especially at the Pappa Bear end of the market. I have huge admiration for those who are creating and chasing bold OSS plans. But what about for the large majority of customers that fall into the Goldilocks category? Is our field of vision so heavy (ie so grand and so far into the future) that we’re missing the opportunity to solve the business problems of our customers and make a difference for them with lighter solutions today?

TM Forum’s Digital Transformation World is due to start in just over two weeks. It will be fascinating to see how many of the presentations and booths consider the Goldilocks requirements. There probably won’t be many because it’s just not as sexy a story as one that mentions heavy solutions like policy-driven orchestration, zero-touch automation, AI / ML / analytics, self-scaling / self-healing networks, etc.

[I should also note that I fall into the category of loving to listen to the heavy solutions too!! ]

Networks lead. OSS are an afterthought. Time for a change?

In a recent post, we described how changing conditions in networks (eg topologies, technologies, etc) cause us to reconsider our OSS.

Networks always lead and OSS (or any form of network management including EMS/NMS) is always an afterthought. Often a distant afterthought.

But what if we spun this around? What if OSS initiated change in our networks / services? After all, OSS is the platform that operationalises the network. So instead of attempting to cope with a huge variety of network options (which introduces a massive number of variants and in turn, massive complexity, which we’re always struggling with in our OSS), what if we were to define the ways that networks are operationalised?

Let’s assume we want to lead. What has to happen first?

Network vendors tend to lead currently because they’re offering innovation in their networks, but more importantly on the associated services supported over the network. They’re prepared to take the innovation risk knowing that operators are looking to invest in solutions they can offer to their customers (as products / services) for a profit. The modus operandi is for operators to look to network vendors, not OSS vendors / integrators, to help to generate new revenues. It would take a significant perception shift for operators to break this nexus and seek out OSS vendors before network vendors. For a start, OSS vendors have to create a revenue generation story rather than the current tendency towards a cost-out business case.

ONAP provides an interesting new line of thinking though. As you know, it’s an open-source project that represents multiple large network operators banding together to build an innovative new approach to OSS (even if it is being driven by network change – the network virtualisation paradigm shift in particular). With a white-label, software-defined network as a target, we have a small opening. But to turn this into an opportunity, our OSS need to provide innovation in the services being pushed onto the SDN. That innovation has to be in the form of services/products that are readily monetisable by the operators.

Who’s up for this challenge?

As an aside:
If we did take the lead, would our OSS look vastly different to what’s available today? Would they unequivocally need to use the abstract model to cope with the multitude of scenarios?

A purple cow in our OSS paddock

A few years ago, I read a book that had a big impact on the way I thought about OSS and OSS product development. Funnily enough, the book had nothing to do with OSS or product development. It was a book about marketing – a subject that I wasn’t very familiar with at the time, but am now fascinated with.

And the book? Purple Cow by Seth Godin.
Purple Cow

The premise behind the book is that when we go on a trip into the countryside, we notice the first brown or black cows, but after a while we don’t pay attention to them anymore. The novelty has worn off and we filter them out. But if there was a purple cow, that would be remarkable. It would definitely stand out from all the other cows and be talked about. Seth promoted the concept of building something into your products that make them remarkable, worth talking about.

I recently heard an interview with Seth. Despite the book being launched in 2003, apparently he’s still asked on a regular basis whether idea X is a purple cow. His answer is always the same – “I don’t decide whether your idea is a purple cow. The market does.”

That one comment brought a whole new perspective to me. As hard as we might try to build something into our OSS products that create a word-of-mouth buzz, ultimately we don’t decide if it’s a purple cow concept. The market does.

So let me ask you a question. You’ve probably seen plenty of different OSS products over the years (I know I have). How many of them are so remarkable that you want to talk about them with your OSS colleagues, or even have a single feature that’s remarkable enough to discuss?

There are a lot of quite brilliant OSS products out there, but I would still classify almost all of them as brown cows. Brilliant in their own right, but unremarkable for their relative sameness to lots of others.

The two stand-out purple cows for me in recent times have been CROSS’ built-in data quality ranking and Moogsoft’s Incident Room model. But it’s not for me to decide. The market will ultimately decide whether these features are actual purple cows.

I’d love to hear about your most memorable OSS purple cows.

You may also be wondering how to go about developing your own purple OSS cow. Well I start by asking, “What are people complaining about?” or “What are our biggest issues?” That’s where the opportunities lie. Once discovering those issues, the challenge is solving the problem/s in an entirely different, but better, way. I figure that if people care enough to complain about those issues, then they’re sure to talk about any product that solves the problem for them.

Designing OSS to cope with greater transience

There are three broad models of networking in use today. The first is the adaptive model where devices exchange peer information to discover routes and destinations. This is how IP networks, including the Internet, work. The second is the static model where destinations and pathways (routes) are explicitly defined in a tabular way, and the final is the central model where destinations and routes are centrally controlled but dynamically set based on policies and conditions.”
Tom Nolle here.

OSS of decades past worked best with static networks. Services / circuits that were predominantly “nailed up” and (relatively) rarely changed after activation. This took the real-time aspect out of play and justified the significant manual effort required to establish a new service / circuit.

However, adaptive and centrally managed networks have come to dominate the landscape now. In fact, I’m currently working on an assignment where DWDM, a technology that was once largely static, is now being augmented to introduce an SDN controller and dynamic routing (at optical level no less!).

This paradigm shift changes the fundamentals of how OSS operate. Apart from the physical layer, network connectivity is now far more transient, so our tools must be able to cope with that. Not only that, but the changes are too frequent to justify the manual effort of the past.

To tie in with yesterday’s post, we are again faced with the option of abstract / generic modelling or specific modelling.

Put another way, we have to either come up with adaptive / algorithmic mechanisms to deal with that transience (the specific model), or need to mimic “nailed-up” concepts (the abstract model).

More on the implications of this tomorrow.

When your ideas get stolen

When your ideas get stolen.
A few meditations from Seth Godin:
“Good for you. Isn’t it better that your ideas are worth stealing? What would happen if you worked all that time, created that book or that movie or that concept and no one wanted to riff on it, expand it or run with it? Would that be better?
You’re not going to run out of ideas. In fact, the more people grab your ideas and make magic with them, the more of a vacuum is sitting in your outbox, which means you will prompted to come up with even more ideas, right?
Ideas that spread win. They enrich our culture, create connection and improve our lives. Isn’t that why you created your idea in the first place?
The goal isn’t credit. The goal is change.”

A friend of mine has lots of great ideas. Enough to write a really valuable blog. Unfortunately he’s terrified that someone else will steal those ideas. In the meantime, he’s missing out on building a really important personal brand for himself. Do you know anyone like him?

The great thing about writing a daily blog is that it forces you to generate lots of ideas. It forces you to be constantly thinking about your subject matter and how it relates to the world. Putting them out there in the hope that others want to run with them, in the hope that they spread. In the hope that others will expand upon them and make them more powerful, teaching you along the way. At over 2000 posts now, it’s been an immensely enriching experience for me anyway. As Seth states, the goal is definitely change and we can all agree that OSS is in desperate need for change.

It is incumbent on all of us in the OSS industry to come up with a constant stream of ideas – big and small. That’s what we tend to do on a daily basis right? Do yours tend towards the smaller end of the scale, to resolve daily delivery tasks or the larger end of the scale, to solve the industry’s biggest problems?

Of your biggest ideas, how do you get them out into the world for others to riff on? How many of your ideas have been stolen and made a real difference?

If someone rips off your ideas, it’s a badge of honour and you know that you’ll always generate more…unless you don’t let your idea machine run.

Re-writing the Sales vs Networks cultural divide

Brand, marketing, pricing and sales were seen as sexy. Networks and IT were the geeks no one seemed to speak to or care about. … This isolation and excommunication of our technical team had created an environment of disillusion. If you wanted something done the answer was mostly ‘No – we have no budget and no time for that’. Our marketing team knew more about loyalty points … than about our own key product, the telecommunications network.”
Olaf Swantee
, from his book, “4G Mobile Revolution”

Great note here (picked up by James Crawshaw at Heavy Reading). It talks about the great divide that always seems to exist between Sales / Marketing and Network / Ops business units.

I’m really excited about the potential for next generation OSS / orchestration / NaaS (Network as a Service) architectures to narrow this divide though.

In this case:

  1. The Network is offered as a microservice (let’s abstractly call them Resource Facing Services [RFS]);
  2. Sales / Marketing construct customer offerings (let’s call them Customer Facing Services [CFS]) from those RFS; and
  3. There’s a catalog / orchestration layer that marries the CFS with the cohesive set of RFS

The third layer becomes a meet-in-the-middle solution where Sales / Marketing comes together with Network / Ops – and where they can discuss what customers want and what the network can provide.

The RFS are suitably abstracted that Sales / Marketing doesn’t need to understand the network and complexity that sits behind the veil. Perhaps it’s time for Networks / Ops to shine, where the RFS can be almost as sexy as CFS (am I falling too far into the networks / geeky side of the divide?  🙂  )

The CFS are infinitely composable from RFS (within the constraints of the RFS that are available), allowing Sales / Marketing teams to build whatever they want and the Network / Ops teams don’t have to be constantly reacting to new customer offerings.

I wonder if this revolution will give Olaf cause to re-write this section of his book in a few years, or whether we’ll still have the same cultural divide despite the exciting new tools.