Back in the days when I first started using OSS/BSS software tools, there was no way any respectable telco was going to use open-source software (the other oss, for which I’ll use lower-case in this article) in their OSS/BSS stacks. The arguments were plenty, and if we’re being honest, probably had a strong element of truth in many cases back then.
These arguments included:
- Security – This is the most commonly cited aversion I’ve heard to open-source. Our OSS/BSS control our network, so they absolutely have to be secure. Secure across all aspects of the stack from network / infrastructure to data (at rest and in motion) to account access to applications / code, etc. The argument against open-source is that the code is open to anyone to view, so vulnerabilities can be identified by hackers. Another argument is that community contributors could intentionally inject vulnerabilities that aren’t spotted by the rest of the community
- Quality – There is a perception that open-source projects are more hobby projects than professional. Related to that, hobbyists can’t expend enough effort to make the solution as feature-rich and/or user-friendly as commercial software
- Flexibility – Large telcos tend to want to steer the products to their own unique needs via a lot of customisations. OSS/BSS transformation projects tend to be large enough to encourage proprietary software vendors to be paid to make the requested changes. Choosing open-source implies accepting the product (and its roadmap) is defined by its developer community unless you wish to develop your own updates
- Support – Telcos run 24x7x365, so they often expect their OSS/BSS vendors to provide round-the-clock support as well. There’s a belief that open-source comes with a best-effort support model with no contracted service obligations. And if something does go drastically wrong, that open-source disclaims all responsibility and liability
- Continuity – Telcos not only run 24x7x365, but also expect to maintain this cadence for decades to come. They need to know that they can rely on their OSS/BSS today but also expect a roadmap of updates into the future. They can’t become dependent upon a hobbyist or community that decides they don’t want to develop their open-source project anymore
Luckily, these perceptions around open-source have changed in telco circles in recent years. The success of open-source organisations like Red Hat (acquired by IBM for $34 billion on annual revenues of $3.4 billion) have shown that valuable business models can be underpinned by open-source. There are many examples of open-source OSS/BSS projects driving valuable business models and associated professionalism. The change in perception has possibly also been driven by shifts in application architectures, from monolithic OSS/BSS to more modular ones. Having smaller modules has opened the door to utilisation of building block solutions like the Apache projects.
So let’s look at the same five factors above again, but through the lens of the pros rather than the cons.
- Security – There’s no doubt that security is always a challenge, regardless of being open-source or proprietary software, especially for an industry like OSS/BSS where all organisations are still investing more heavily in innovation (new features/capabilitys) more than security optimisations. Clearly the openness of code means vulnerabilities are more easily spotted in open-source than in “walled-garden” proprietary solutions. Not just by nefarious actors, but its development community as well. Linus’ Law suggests that “given enough eyeballs, all bugs (and security flaws) are shallow.” The question for open-source OSS/BSS is whether there are actually many eyeballs. All commercially successful open-source OSS/BSS vendors that I’m aware of have their own teams of professional developers who control every change to the code base, even on the rare occasions when there are community contributions. Similarly, many modern open-source OSS/BSS leverage other open-source modules that do have many eyes (eg linux, snmp libaries, Apache projects, etc). Another common perception is security through obscurity, that there are almost no external “eyeballs.” The fragmented nature of the OSS/BSS industry means that some proprietary tools have a tiny install base. This can lull some into a false sense of security. Alternatively, open-source OSS/BSS manufacturers know there’s a customer focus on security and have to mitigate this concern. The other interesting perspective of openness is that open-source projects can quite quickly be scrutinised for security-code-quality. An auditor has free reign to identify whether the code is professional and secure. With proprietary software, the customer’s auditor isn’t afforded the same luxury unless special access is granted to the code. With no code access, the auditor has to reverse-engineer for vulnerabilities rather than foresee them in the code.
- Quality – There’s no doubt that many open-source OSS/BSS have matured and found valuable business models to sustain them. With the profitable business model has come increased resources, professionalism and quality. With the increased modularity of modern architectures, open-source OSS/BSS projects are able to perform very specific niche functionalities. Contrast this with the monolithic proprietary solutions that have needed to spread their resources thinner across a much wider functional estate. Also successful open-source OSS/BSS organisations tend to focus on product development and product-related services (eg support), whereas the largest OSS/BSS firms tend to derive a much larger percentage of revenues from value-added services (eg transformations, customisations, consultancy, managed services, etc). The latter are more services-oriented companies than product companies. As inferred in the security point above, open-source also provides transparency relating to code-quality. A code auditor will quickly identify whether open-source code is of good quality, whereas proprietary software quality is hidden inside the black-box
- Flexibility – There has been a significant shift in telco mindsets in recent years, from an off-the-shelf to a build-your-own OSS/BSS stack. Telcos like AT&T have seen the achievements of the hyperscalers, observed the increased virtualisation of networks and realised they needed to have more in-house software development skills. Having in-house developers and access to the code-base of open-source means that telcos have (almost) complete control over their OSS/BSS destinies. They don’t need to wait for proprietary vendors to acknowledge, quote, develop and release new feature requests. They no longer rely on the vendor’s roadmap. They can just slip the required changes into their CI/CD pipeline and prioritise according to resource availability. Or if you don’t want to build a team of developers specifically skilled with your OSS/BSS, you can pick and choose – what functionality to develop in-house, versus what functionality you want to sponsor the open-source vendor to build
- Support – Remember when I mentioned above that OSS/BSS organisations have found ways to build profitable business models around open-source software? In most cases, their revenues are derived from annual support contracts. The quality and coverage of their support (and the products that back it up) is directly tied to their income stream, so there’s commensurate professionalism assigned to support. As mentioned earlier, almost all the open-source OSS/BSS I’m aware of are developed by an organisation that controls all code change, not community consensus projects. This is a good thing when it comes to support, as the support partner is clear, unlike community-led open-source projects. Another support-related perspective is in the number of non-production environments that can be used for support, test, training, security analysis, etc. The cost of proprietary software means that it can be prohibitive to stand up additional environments for the many support use-cases. Apart from the underlying hardware costs and deployment effort, standing up additional open-source environments tends to be at no additional cost. Open-source also gives you greater choice in deciding whether to self-support your OSS/BSS in future (if you feel that your internal team knows the solution so intimately that they can fix any problem or functionality requirement that arises) rather than paying ongoing support contracts. Can the same be said for proprietary product support?
- Continuity – This is perhaps the most interesting one for me. There is the assumption that big, commercial software vendors are more reliable than open-source vendors. This may (or might not) be the case. Plenty of commercial vendors have gone out of business, just as plenty of open-source projects have burned out or dwindled away. To counter the first risk, telcos pay to enter into software escrow agreements with proprietary vendors to ensure critical fixes and roadmap can continue even in the event that a vendor ceases to operate. But the escrow contract may not cover when a commercial vendor chooses to obsolete a product line of software or just fail to invest in new features or patches. This is a common event from even the world’s largest OSS/BSS providers. Under escrow arrangements, customers are effectively paying an insurance fee to have access to the code for organisational continuity purposes, not product continuity. Escrow may not cover that, but open-source is available under any scenario. The more important continuity consideration is the data and data is the reason OSS/BSS exist. When choosing a commercial provider, especially a cloud software / service provider, the data goes into a black box. What happens to the data inside the black box is proprietary and often what comes out of it is also. Telcos will tend to have far more control of their data destinies for operational continuity if using open-source solutions. Speaking of cloud and SaaS-model and/or subscription-model OSS/BSS, customers are at the whim of the vendor’s product direction. Products, features and modules can be easily changed or deprecated by these vendors, with little recourse for the buyers. This can still happen in open-source and become a impediment for buyers too, but at least open-source provides buyers with the opportunity to control their own OSS/BSS destinies.
Now, I’m not advocating one or the other for your particular situation. As cited above, there are clearly pros and cons for each approach as well as different products of best-fit for different operators. However, open-source can no longer be as summarily dismissed as it was when I first started on my OSS/BSS journey. There are many fine OSS and BSS products and vendors in our Blue Book OSS/BSS Vendor Directory that are worthy of your consideration too when looking into your next product or transformation.
Edit: Thanks to Guy B. who rightly suggested that Scalability was another argument against open-source in the past. Ironically, open-source has been a significant influencer in the almost unlimited scalability that many of our solutions enjoy today.